Mad Mike Calvert. An SAS commander & Chindit Brigadier.

Calvert, Michael (1952). Prisoners of Hope. London: Jonathan Cape.

Against overwhelming odds; Mike Calvert left, Officers, Shaw and Lumley; Joanna’s father a Chindit officer.

Against overwhelming odds. Grossly outnumbered, The Chindits’ had just taken Moguang, the last Japanese held a stronghold,

Sections of: The Court Martial of SAS Commanding Officer; Brigadier James Michael Calvert – Mad Mike

About 20+ years ago I submitted synopses of my stories to various English prodcos (production companies) Pearl Catlin had an office at Pinewood studios and asked if I’d write a screenplay on spec., about a British soldier? I leapt at the chance, without any idea how to. That story is about: Brigadier James Michael Calvert DSO – with bar. 1913 – 1984.

Pearl sent 4 thick-books and a tape-with Mike being interviewed. I wrote a 90-page screenplay in 39 days. Pearl said it was an expensive epic, suggesting I reduce cost and scale. Now- at least 14 drafts later, I and Pearl wonder if anyone’s interested after all these years. I don’t know the answer.

The screenplay’s WTO – Working Title; Mad Mike. A Chindit.

I’ll take you to his court-martial- not all; as it runs to 330 pages.

The story in 3 sections:      1st Background on Mike’s fighting in Burma.

2nd Excerpts from Court Martial transcript.

3rd Life after.

Life thereafter and the person responsible who hated him and had the power to frame him. You will be surprised the person I suspected, it was confirmed, I did not say who I suspected to the person who confirmed my suspicion. Do I have proof, no? But this person I was told early in a screenplay by someone who knew far more than I at that time quote “He has sticky fingers.” It was Lord Mountbatten a man of dubious habits. Far East Supreme Allied Commander.

It will total 6-8,000 words I think.

Prof., David Rooney who I spoke and wrote to whilst writing the screenplay told me he was only allowed to read a few pages-4I believe of the court-martial transcript. That with an official standing alongside. I have the complete transcript. It is far from perfect, but readable.

Some following facts before that trial?

Background:

In WW2 they fought the Japanese in Burma. These town-bred men’s lives would never be the same. They were The Chindit’s. Brig. Mike Calvert was a Brigade Commander.

The only time 31-year-old career soldier Brigadier Mike Calvert missed a fight was when he was too drunk to stand, which as it happens was not that often. To the British Army Calvert is 187 pounds of trouble. But this is a fight, he’d never forgotten. The Japanese Fifteenth Commanding Officer General Mutaguchi wished he’d never heard his C.O. General Orde-Wingate’s name. Unfortunately for Mutagachi Mike never had a dram of whiskey during the monsoon season in Burma in 1944. The other fight seven years later, Mike never saw it coming.

Mike, with 2000 Chindit’s were behind enemy lines, gnawing away at the Japanese guts. After four months of relentless fighting, Dysentery, Malaria, Trench foot and Jungle sores 500 skinny Chindits’ were still alive, another 200 were injured, most unfit to fight. Then an idiot US Army General “Vinegar” Joe Stilwell who promised his Commanding officer “I’ll kick the Japanese asses out of Burma,” ordered Mike to take Mogaung – the last Jap stronghold. Stilwell, safe behind a desk a hundred miles north, didn’t believe Mike who told him, “Defending Mogaung are 10,000 of the best Jap Jungle Fighters. They’re well dug in and will fight to the death. How do you think we will fair?

Wounded Chindit’s crawled from beds to follow the man they nicknamed ‘Mad Mike.’ With the tireless help of USAF Colonel Cochrane, his pilots flying the formidable Mustang, Mike crushed Mutaguchi’s army. When Mike heard that The Yanks ‘had kicked the Japs out of Burma’. He signaled Stilwell ‘I am now taking Umbridge’. Stilwell replied, ‘where is it? We cannot find it on the maps’.

A year earlier on Churchill ordered General Wingate devised LRP – Long Range Penetration. Wingate read what Mike had scribbled notes in 1940 notes about the way raiding parties could be kept supplied by air, far behind any existing fighting line,

Wingate chose this hard fighting rebel officer who shared the same fears; fight the conventional way and we’ll lose. Tragically Wingate died in a plane crash before he knew how successful LRP would be. Mike was recommended for the VC, by three Brigade Commanders it was denied higher command or General Kirby.

Kirby a stubborn, conventional soldier was convinced these two rebels would lose, then his out-dated fighting methods would defeat Mutaguchi. By now Kirby was an envious man and hated Calvert who challenged him to leave his desk hundreds of miles away in India and start killing the Japanese? In late 1944, the Chindit’s were disbanded. Mutaguchi later admitted he’d found his match in Wingate. He even wrote to the Chindit CO in India saddened by Wingate’s death, adding in him he had found his match.

Back in England, Mike was appointed CO for three years of the SAS in Europe. Years earlier he wrote a paper ‘Guerrilla warfare. Highly trained specialist soldiers who get in fast hit hard, the get out’. Kirby wrote an unofficial history of the war in Burma. In it he tore Calvert and Wingate to shreds. The establishment could not have Wingate and Calvert seen as leaders, more as rebels whose fighting methods were not those of the British Army.

In 1952 Mike was court-martialled on trumped-up charges. In his opening statement the Prosecuting lawyer Lt. Colonel Campbell opened his statement thus: “May I say that I, as prosecutor, share that sense of distress in the fullest measure and that the burden of prosecuting this case before you, as it is, unfortunately, my duty to do, weighs heavily indeed upon my shoulders.”

Despite over-whelming defense evidence contradicting Calvert’s alleged Homosexual lurches, the JAG Judge Advocate General with a panel of judges found him guilty of ‘trying to procure acts of gross indecency” against 4 known German criminal youths’. They had earlier broke into his flat, stole his gun and other effects. SIB Special Investigation Branch told the youths, these with other break-in charges will be dropped, by signing a statement that Calvert had tried to assault them. Unable to read English they signed avoiding jail sentences. On Sunday, July 13, 1952, the accused 58046 Brigadier James Michael Calvert was dismissed from her Majesty’s Service.

Calvert’s life-long friend Col. Fleming got an appeal and the court was re-convened to hear it.  Col. Fleming and Mike’s lawyer produced written statements from these youths’ that they were tricked, not understanding what they’d signed. Again the JAG dismissed this appeal on procedural grounds. It should have been handed to the police, who would have handed it to the JAG. Procedure 64 was breached.

The verdict, together with irrefutable appeal evidence was catastrophic for this highly decorated Cambridge degree 39-year-old soldier.

Of whom Field Marshall Montgomery said, “He’s the only officer who gave me a straight answer.”

Friends turned away from him, he became an alcoholic, a dropout, dependant on social security. Frequently involved in fights and stays in alcoholic centers. Following ten years in Australia, he returned to England where the SAS found this hero on the streets.

Back on his feet, Mike never settled in work where his Engineering degree secured his a monthly pay packet. He tried but the court-martial nagged away at his innards as he’d inflicted on Mutaguchi. He started drinking again, wrote two highly acclaimed books on guerrilla warfare: past, its future and lectured on his favorite subject, fighting. Because of the injuries and diseases contracted in Burma meant he relied on a wheel-chair later in life to get around East London where he lived in a small flat. An admirer took him to Army reunions where he was deeply moved by the unrelenting admiration and affection from his my old comrades.

In July 1997 Mike auctioned his 14 medals for £18,000. Some say the finest of any British soldier, who justly deserved Britain’s highest award for gallantry, the Victoria Cross. But life has not been just to Mike. In 18 months he’d drunk it all away, and despite this personal abuse and the diseases from Burma. Brigadier James Michael Calvert DSO with bar died on November 28, 1998, aged 85.

Successive appeals to the British governments clear General Charles Orde-Wingate and Calvert’s name have failed

This brilliant hard-fighting WW2 Brigadier is hated by his superior officers. It’s the conventional soldiers’ dislike of the unconventional. Montgomery said of him, ‘He’s the only officer who gave me a straight answer.’

Mike was in Burma where he was dubbed ‘Mad Mike,’ because he laughed loudly in moments of danger. He led from the front. This fearless, heavy drinking, hard fighting idealist-the acknowledged expert on guerrilla warfare was recommended for the V.C. Astonishingly it’s quashed at senior level by a man behind a desk in India.

This daring soldier and his strong association with SAS beginnings of which he was Commanding Office; is ill-prepared for the battle he never saw coming.

The most decorated soldier in the British Army sold all his medals for £18,000 and drank most of it away. He died in an East End London hospital aged 84 in 1998.

The most brutal part of Mike’s life came in 1952 when he stood to defend himself against outrageous accusations that he had indecently assaulted four German youths.  So who hated Mike and had the power to frame him. More important why? I now know who it was. The exact reason I don’t, but one near enough

I take you to the start of: Trial by Court Martial of 58046 Major Michael Calvert DSO with bar, Corps of Royal Engineers, attached Commander Royal Engineers, Hanover. Although a Brigadier, the German posting rank was a Major, so he became a Major for this position only.

The scene set-up and other descriptions are mine. The CAPITALS name the actual characters, their dialogue follows.

The transcript dialogue.

STIRLING HOUSE, HANOVER, GERMANY, TUESDAY 8TH JULY 1952. 1020 HOURS.  LAW COURT – DAY

COURT PRESIDENT rests his gavel in front of him. On a long table (the bench) the court members sit in military uniforms.  In the center: the PRESIDENT Brigadier MORGAN and JUDGE ADVOCATE in civilian clothes. O.C. BARNETT.  Other members, two either side of them: Lt. Col. MITFORD, Lt. Col. GARINER-BROWN.  Lt. Col MUNN. Lt. Col PALMER.

The PROSECUTOR: Lt. Col. CAMPBELL and the DEFENDING COUNSEL, Mr. GRIFFITHS-JONES stand behind their respective tables, in front of the bench.

Everyone sits silent, waiting.

Mike Calvert is brought before the court; he stands next to Griffith Jones.

Brigadier Morgan looks at Calvert who seems to be swaying on his feet.

BRIG. MORGAN. Do you object to being tried by me as President, or by any of the officers, whose names you have heard read over?

CALVERT. I have no objection.

The President, Members, and Judge are duly sworn in. Barnett looks at Calvert.

BARNETT. Major Calvert, it is proposed that at your trial the proceedings shall be taken down by a shorthand writer who has been appointed by the court.  He is Mr. R.W. Barnett of the Directorate of the Army Legal Services of the War Office, who you see on your left. Calvert doesn’t look at the man.

BARNETT. Do you object to him acting as shorthand writer?

CALVERT. I have no objection.

Barnett is sworn in, other formalities end as follows:

BRIG. MORGAN. On your left Major Calvert are; Captain R. Bigwood and Captain R.G. Rogers both from the intelligence corps do you object to either of these officers acting as interpreters?

CALVERT. I have no objections.

BARNETT. Major Calvert, you are described in the charge-sheet as the accused, Number 58046 Major James Michael Calvert, DSO, Corps of Royal Engineers, attached Commander Royal Engineers, Hanover, an officer of the regular force.  Is that a correct description?

CALVERT. That is correct.

BARNETT. You are charged on this charge-sheet with four charges, all of which are laid under section 41 of the Army act.  The first charge alleges when on active service committing a civil offense, that is to say, gross indecency to section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885, in that you at Soltau on a date unknown in or about the month of April 1952, is a male person, committed an act of gross indecency with Lothar Gebien, a male person.  Are you guilty or not of the first charge?

CALVERT. Not guilty.

Three other almost identical charges are read, naming three more German teenagers: Egon Schneider, Host Bartels, and Heinz Furhop.

Calvert pleads not guilty to all three.  We move forward as Barnett concludes his statement.

BARNETT.  That you have been prejudiced thereby, or on any ground that you have not had sufficient opportunity for preparing your defense?

CALVERT. I do not wish for an adjournment.

Barnett acknowledges Calvert with a slight expressionless nod.

BARNETT. Major Calvert, you may be seated.  Colonel Campbell, do you make an opening address.

Lt. Col. Campbell stands.

CAMPBELL. I do sir.

Calvert sits down, moistens his lips with his tongue.  Griffith-Jones seeing Calvert’s discomfort eases a glass of water to him.

Campbell waits as Calvert sips some water, then dries his lips with a handkerchief then tucks it back into his breast pocket where he taps and lifts an edge which flaps out front.

Campbell smiles at Calvert nodding his head slightly.

CAMPBELL. Gentlemen, before I outline to you the persecution’s case, may I be permitted to say something of a rather personal nature?

Campbell looks at the bench.

BARNETT. Of course.

CAMPBELL. Thank you, sir.

Campbell drinks from a glass of water.  Clears his throat, turns over a page of his documents.  Looks at Calvert an arm outstretched toward him.

CAMPBELL. That Major Calvert comes before you with this tremendous record of service to his country should find himself today in this predicament, whether he is guilty or whether he is innocent, must be a source of distress to all who know him and all who know of him.  May I say that I, as a prosecutor, share that sense of distress in the fullest measure and that the burden of prosecuting this case before you, as it is, unfortunately, my duty to do, weighs heavily indeed upon my shoulders?  Thank you.

Campbell turns a document page.

Now sir, if I may deal with the case itself.  At the time these offenses are alleged to have been committed Major Calvert was then Lieutenant Colonel and he was Commander Royal Engineers stationed at Soltau. I will remind the court; Major Calvert accepted this lower rank from his Brigadier status on accepting this posting.

Sometime LATER

CAMPBELL continues, inevitably you as a court, must and, in fact, the prosecution invites you to do so – view everything these young men have said before you with the gravest suspicion.  You will not act upon it, as I say, without that corroboration required by law and without the greatest degree of certainty in your minds.  During the course of that investigation the officer with Major Calvert present in his quarters found in a locked drawer which the Major opened, a German magazine circulated amongst men who are either practicing homosexuals or are inclined to homosexual activities.

SOME TIME LATER….

CAMPBELL continues. Shortly after these alleged indecent acts are to have taken place at Major Calvert’s flat, a series of burglaries occurred in the annex to the headquarters’ mess of this brigade.  Major Calvert himself had several things stolen: his wallet, his revolver, some ammunition, and a sweater.  The four prosecution witnesses I have spoken about were arrested by the German police as authors of these crimes.  Two are to be charged over these offenses, two others are not.

Now, all the charges in this case as you know doubt has already appreciated are concerned with indecent acts that are alleged to have occurred between Major Calvert, the accused, and the various German persons mentioned in the particulars of each charge. Wholly different witnesses give evidence regarding the first two charges to those who give evidence in relation to the remaining two. I say they are different because there is a legal significance that attaches to that different.  It is this. In relation to the first two charges, the witnesses who will tell you of the alleged indecent acts were themselves at all times consenting parties to what occurred, if in fact, it did occur. On the other hand, the witnesses in relation to the last two charges, according to the prosecution, were consenting parties. The point about that, gentlemen, is this. In the case of the witnesses who have consented to acts of indecency the law, as a matter of practice, requires that their evidence shall be corroborated, that is to say, that there shall be some independent testimony which corroborates that it was the accused who committed it. So far as the witnesses relating to the first two charges are concerned, I shall submit at a later stage, that there is evidence upon which you can find the corroboration required by law but, of course, with or without corroboration inevitably you, as a Court must and, in fact, the prosecution invite you to do so – view everything they say before you with the gravest suspicion. You will not act upon it, as I say, without that corroboration required by law and without of certainty in your minds.

Gentlemen, I emphasize this distinction between the two witnesses who are relevant to the first two charges and the last two charges. In fact, I suggest to you that, at all times throughout this case, you should keep in your minds the distinction I have just made for this reason. It may well be that after you have heard the evidence of the boys in relation to the first two charges you will feel it lacks reliability that would entitle you to act upon it. If that should happen it is important in the extreme that you should not let that fact in any way detract from the value of the evidence of the other witnesses given in conjunction with the remaining two charges, their evidence does not in any way taint or void from the facts that you will hear from the remaining witnesses whose evidence will, in the prosecution’s submission, satisfy you that a case has been made out in relation to the remaining charges.

That is the case for the Prosecution which they will introduce before you in relation to that one surviving charge. As you listen to it ask you selves this: It is clear that these boys are some of the most unpleasant specimens of young manhood that we have ever come across, but have they wickedly and deliberately got together and invented this monstrous story against Major Calvert? Have they sunk to such depths of depravity that they can turn round and accuse of these infamous things a man they know to be wholly innocent? Ask yourself that, keep that question, if I may respectfully suggest it, at the back of your minds as you listen to what they say, be sure that the answer must be yes, if you are to decide that they are deliberately lying and deliberately attempting to mislead you in connection with this officer, Major Calvert. That concludes the prosecution’s case sir.

Campbell sits down and takes a long drink of water.

Lt. Col. Campbell’s statement covers 10 full pages.

Page 9. Last para. Boys admitted they are self-confessed sexual offenders and they went to Calvert’s flat to plunder. Also, they robbed other officer’s quarters.

Page 19. Around Soltau, there was a strong anti-British feeling.

Pages47/8

Brigadier Bernard Fergusson is called to the stand.

GRIFFITHS-JONES. What is your present appointment?

FERGUSSON. Intelligence, Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers in Europe.

GRIFFITHS-JONES. Where did meet Major Calvert?

FERGUSSON.  May/June 1942, in Delhi, where I was on General Wavell’s staff. Eventually, we both commanded columns.

G.J. During the time of the Burma campaign did anything come to your notice, anything of any kind whatsoever, which might suggest that this officer was homosexual?

FERGUSSON. No sir.

G.J. Out in the country where you were in two columns do you think you would have heard about it?

FERGUSON. I put it higher than that, I would say it was inconceivable I should not have heard about it.

G.J. Can you say anything as to his characteristic habits, little ways of behavior that might have some bearing on it?

FERGUSSON. I will describe the accused as having a boisterous nature and I have often seen him indulge in horseplay, I even saw him break his arm while indulging in horseplay and it is entirely his character to indulge in rough houses such as one might say on a guest night, it is entirely in his character.

 

Brigadier Fergusson later; The Right Honourable the Lord Ballantrae KT. GCMG, GCVO, DSO, OBE

 

In 1996 an inquiry was mounted into his Court Martial and the surviving prosecution witnesses cooperated openly and willingly, stating their evidence they’d given was false and inaccurate and they were horrified to learn that their statements, which tried to put right the inaccuracies of the court-martial had not been accepted and the appeal dismissed.

BARNETT.  Mr. Griffiths-Jones.

The court erupts as people talk among themselves. The JUDGE hits his gavel on its base.

JUDGE. Order in the court!  Anyone not complying will be directed to the exit forthwith.  …  You may proceed.

He nods in Calvert’s direction as he sits erect, as his Lawyer Griffith-Jones stands and delivers his defense speech. GRIFFITHS-JONES looks around the room, taking his time; he stares at Calvert who remains still.

GRIFFITH-JONES. That man sitting here is not perfect.  He is fourteen stone five pounds of trouble.  And he has other problems.  Brigadier Calvert is a fighter, a brawler, and an alcoholic to boot.  With that on your side, it is little wonder he’s sitting right here.  But he’s not here as a result of any of these traits.  No gentlemen, he’s here because some petty high ranking Army officers are jealous of this soldier.  They hadn’t either the guts or courage that this man has in abundance.  They don’t like the way he fights; and, thank God they don’t.  If they did we’d probably be talking German or Japanese, that’s if any of us were still alive because Britain would have lost the war.  But we didn’t lose, because of fighters like Brigadier James Michael Calvert, DSO with bar.  He curses speaks his mind, and this offends some senior officers.  Clever, certainly, Bolshie, even pugnacious, this man never fitted in.  His type of fighting was novel and suspect by many Army officers in the forties.  Such men had been taught along traditional lines, face-to-face battle, relying on tight discipline and orderliness.

These town-bred men’s lives would never be the same. They were The Chindit’s.  Brig. Mike Calvert was a Brigade commander in Burma. At 31, the youngest Brigadier in the Army

The only time Mike missed a fight was when he was too drunk to stand, which as it happens was not often. To the British Army Calvert is 187 pounds of trouble. But this is a fight, he’d never forgotten. The Japanese Fifteenth Commanding Officer General Mutaguchi wished he’d never heard his name. Unfortunately for him Mike never had a dram of whisky during the monsoon season in Burma in 1944. The other fight seven years later, Mike never saw it coming.

Mike with 2000 Chindit’s were behind enemy lines, gnawing away at the Japanese guts. After four months of relentless fighting, Dysentery, Malaria, Trench foot and Jungle sores 500 skinny Chindit’s were still alive, another 200 were injured, most unfit to fight. Then an idiot US Army General “Vinegar” Joe Stilwell who promised his Commanding officer “I’ll kick the Japanese asses out of Burma,” ordered Mike to take Mogaung – the last Jap stronghold. Stilwell, safe behind a desk a hundred miles north, didn’t believe Mike who told him, “Defending Mogaung are 10,000 of the best Jap Jungle Fighters. They’re well dug in and will fight to the death. How do you think we will fair?

Wounded Chindit’s crawled from beds to follow the man they nicknamed “Mad Mike.” With the tireless help of USAF Colonel Cochrane, his pilots flying the formidable Mustang, Mike crushed Mutaguchi’s army. When Mike heard that The Yanks had kicked the Japs out of Burma, he signaled Stilwell “I am now taking Umbridge.” “Stilwell replied “where is it? We cannot find it on the maps.”

A year earlier on Churchill’s ordered General Wingate devised LRP – Long Range Penetration; troops behind enemy lines supplied with the goods dropped by air by USAAF. Wingate chose this hard fighting rebel officer who shared the same fears; fight the conventional way and we lose. Tragically Wingate died in a plane crash before he knew how successful LRP would be. Mike was recommended for the VC, by three Brigade Commanders it was denied by General Kirby. A stubborn, conventional soldier convinced these two rebels would lose, and then their outdated fighting methods would defeat Mutaguchi. By now Kirby was an envious man and hated Calvert who challenged him to leave his desk hundreds of miles away in India and start killing the Japanese? In late 1944, the Chindit’s were disbanded. Mutaguchi later admitted he’d found his match in Wingate and Calvert.

Back in England, Mike was appointed CO for three years of the SAS in Europe. Years earlier he’d written a paper Guerilla warfare: highly trained specialist soldiers “who get in fast, hit hard, the get out.” General Kirby wrote an unofficial history of the war in Burma. In it he tore Calvert and Wingate to shreds. In 1952 Mike was court-martialled on trumped-up charges. In his opening statement the Prosecuting lawyer Lt. Campbell concluded his opening statement thus:

“May I say that I, as a prosecutor, share that sense of distress in the fullest measure and that the burden of prosecuting this case before you, as it is, unfortunately, my duty to do, weighs heavily indeed upon my shoulders?”

Despite overwhelming defense evidence contradicting Calvert’s alleged Homosexual lurches, the JAG Judge Advocate General with a panel of judges found him guilty of “trying to procure acts of gross indecency” against 4 known German criminal youths, who earlier broke into his flat and stole his gun and other effects. SIB Special Investigation Branch told the youths, these with other break-in charges will be dropped by signing a statement that Calvert tried to assault them. Unable to read English they signed avoiding jail sentences. On Sunday, July 13, 1952, the accused 58046 Brigadier James Michael Calvert was dismissed from Her Majesty’s Service.

Calvert’s life-long friend Col. Fleming got an appeal at which he and Mike’s lawyer produced written statements from these youths, that they were tricked, not understanding what they’d signed. Again the JAG dismissed this appeal on procedural grounds. It should have been handed to the police, who would have handed it to the JAG. Procedure 64 was breached.

The verdict, together with irrefutable appeal evidence was catastrophic for this highly decorated Cambridge degree 39-year-old soldier. Of whom Field Marshall Montgomery said, “He’s the only officer who gave me a straight answer.” Friends turned away from him, he became an alcoholic, a dropout, dependent on social security. Frequently involved in fights and stays in alcoholic centers. Following ten years in Australia, he returned to England where the SAS found this hero on the streets.

Back on his feet, Mike never settled in work where his Engineering degree secured his a monthly pay packet. He tried but the court-martial nagged away at his innards, as he’d inflicted on Mutaguchi. He started drinking again, wrote two highly acclaimed books on guerilla warfare past; it’s future and lectured on his favorite subject, fighting. Because of the injuries and diseases contracted in Burma meant he relied on a wheel-chair later in life to get around East London where he lived in a small flat. An admirer took him to Army reunions where he was deeply moved by the unrelenting admiration and affection from his old comrades.

In July 1997 Mike auctioned his 14 medals for £18,000. Some say the finest of any British soldier, who justly deserved Britain’s highest award for gallantry, the Victoria Cross. But life has not been just to Mike. In 18 months he’d drunk it all away, and despite this personal abuse and the diseases from Burma. Brigadier James Michael Calvert DSO with bar died on November 28, 1998, aged 85.

Successive appeals to the British governments clear General Charles Orde-Wingate and Calvert’s name have failed.

The Gurkhas’ and many nationalities fought in Burma.

 

 

 

 

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